Diabetic ketoacidosis: mechanism, causes and management

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18313 days ago, 2715 views
Diabetic ketoacidosis is an acute complication of uncontrolled hyperglycaemia characterised by high anion gap metabolic acidosis, dehydration and other metabolic abnormalities. Upto half of patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus may have DKA. The incidence in T2DM is also rising. Precipitants include acute illness such as myocardial infarction, trauma and infection. Paitents of diabetic ketoacidosis may present with vomiting, pain abdomen and lethargy. Mental obtundation may also be present. Management of diabetic ketoacidosis revolves around administration of IV normal saline, insulin, replacement of potassium with frequent monitoring of sugars and electrolytes.

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