Cat Scratch Disease


Urinary Tract Infections consist of cystitis which is a bladder/lower urinary tract infection and pyelonephritis which is a kidney/upper urinary tract infection.

● Cause

-UTIs are due to bacteria that may enter the vaginal area. 

-Women are predisposed to getting UTIs due to anatomical differences when compared to men.

-Sexual intercourse, the use of  diaphragms and spermicides may predispose to UTIs

● Symptoms


-Pain and burning with urination 

-increased frequency urinating 

- the sudden urge to urinate

- difficulty with starting to urinate 

- pelvic pain 

- blood in the urine 

- in more complicated lower tract infections you may get a fever and other signs of infection 



-nausea, vomiting


- flank/side/back pain 


● Diagnosis

-based on a patient's symptoms 

-urinary tests aid in the diagnosis if symptoms are not typical 

● Treatment

-antibiotics are the treatment of choice for UTIs, the type of medication and the duration of medication will be dependent on if it is a lower or upper tract infection. 

-if there is discomfort with urination your doctor may give you additional medicine to help with the discomfort. 

-depending on the severity of the infection your doctor may order imaging however in most  cases this is not necessary. 

● Prevention

  • Urinating after sex

  • Wiping from front to back 

  • Cleaning the vaginal area prior to the anal area

  • Gentle soaps without fragrance should be used for cleaning that vaginal area