X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA), or Bruton agammaglobulinemia, is an inherited immunodeficiency disease caused by mutations in the gene coding for Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK). The disease was first elucidated by Bruton in 1952, for whom the gene is named. BTK is critical to the maturation of pre–B cells to differentiating mature B cells. The BTK gene defect has been mapped to the long arm of the X chromosome at band Xq21.3 to Xq22, spanning 37.5kb with 19 exons forming 659 amino acids to complete the BTK cytosolic tyrosine kinase. A database of BTK mutations (BTKbase: Mutation registry for X-linked agammaglobulinemia) lists 544 mutation entries from 471 unrelated families showing 341 unique molecular events. No single mutation accounts for more than 3% of mutations in patients. In addition to mutations, a number of variants or polymorphisms have been found.