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Polyarteritis nodosa is a serious blood vessel disease. The small and medium-sized arteries become swollen and damaged.
Arteries are the blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood to organs and tissues. The cause of polyarteritis nodosa is unknown. The condition occurs when certain immune cells attack the affected arteries.
More adults than children get this disease. The tissues that are fed by the affected arteries do not get the oxygen and nourishment they need. Damage occurs as a result.
People with active hepatitis B or hepatitis C may develop this disease.