Renal Artery Aneurysm Repair

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160 days ago, 5153 views
Indications for intervention in patients with a renal artery aneurysm (RAA) include the following [20, 8, 13, 14] : Rupture Symptomatic RAA - Hypertension (from associated renal artery stenosis, refractory to medical management), pain, renal ischemia or infarction secondary to embolization from the aneurysm sac RAAs in females who are pregnant or are contemplating pregnancy Diameter greater than 2 cm Enlarging RAA RAA associated with acute dissection Currently, there is no consensus regarding the size at which an RAA should be repaired in an asymptomatic patient. Experts have recommended RAA repair at diameters ranging from 1.5 to 3 cm, [8] though most suggest 2 cm. Some reports have even suggest that larger asymptomatic saccular aneurysms may be managed expectantly. Note that aneurysm rupture at a diameter of 1.5 cm has been reported. Complete calcification of the wall of the aneurysm sac manifests in about 40% of patients. This was once believed to confer protection against rupture [21] ; however, this belief has since been questioned. [30] Asymptomatic, small (<2 cm in diameter) RAAs do not usually require treatment. One notable exception is an RAA in a woman who is pregnant or contemplating pregnancy. In view of the increased risk of rupture in such cases, even small asymptomatic aneurysms should be repaired in this population. For diagnosis and preinterventional planning, gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and computed tomography (CT) angiography (CTA) with three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction have essentially replaced conventional arteriography. Regular follow-up examination with ultrasonography (US) or CT) is recommended in patients who are treated expectantly. Spontaneous cure by thrombosis of small aneurysms has been described. Further refinements in endovascular techniques may allow more RAAs to be treated in this manner. So far, excellent short- and intermediate-term results have been described in the literature [40] ; however, there remains a need for further long-term outcome data.
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