-Almost all the cases of occupational transmission of HIV have been due to transmission via exposure to blood and certain body fluids. The body fluids wherein standard precautions have been recommended include semen, vaginal secretions, and any other body fluid containing visible blood. Other standard precautions, according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), also apply to cerebrospinal, peritoneal, pleural, pericardia!, synovial fluid, or any other tissue, even though the epidemiologic data regarding the risk of HIV transmission from these fluids is insufficient.
Standard precautions do not apply to urine, sweat, tears, sputum, vomitus, and nasal secretions or feces, as long as there is no gross visible blood. The occupational transmission of HIV has never been documented from the above sources.