10,300 Views · 4 years ago
An automated external defibrillator or AED is a portable electronic device that automatically diagnoses the potentially life threatening cardiac arrhythmias of ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia in a patient, and is able to treat them through defibrillation, the application of electrical therapy which stops the arrhythmia, allowing the heart to reestablish an effective rhythm. The first AED was originally designed and created by American biomedical engineer Joshua L. Koelker and Italian emergency medical professional Jordan M. Blondino to allow defibrillation in common public places. AEDs are designed to be simple to use for the layman, and the use of AEDs is taught in many first aid, first responder, and basic life support (BLS) level CPR classes.
9,832 Views · 4 years ago
Immunohistochemistry or IHC refers to the process of detecting antigens (e.g., proteins) in cells of a tissue section by exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues. IHC takes its name from the roots "immuno," in reference to antibodies used in the procedure, and "histo," meaning tissue (compare to immunocytochemistry). Immunohistochemical staining is widely used in the diagnosis of abnormal cells such as those found in cancerous tumors. Specific molecular markers are characteristic of particular cellular events such as proliferation or cell death (apoptosis). IHC is also widely used in basic research to understand the distribution and localization of biomarkers and differentially expressed proteins in different parts of a biological tissue. Visualising an antibody-antigen interaction can be accomplished in a number of ways. In the most common instance, an antibody is conjugated to an enzyme, such as peroxidase, that can catalyse a colour-producing reaction. Alternatively, the antibody can also be tagged to a fluorophore, such as fluorescein or rhodamine
7,519 Views · 4 years ago
Rhabdomyolysis is a condition in which damaged skeletal muscle (Ancient Greek: rhabdomyo-) tissue breaks down rapidly (Greek –lysis). This damage may be caused by physical (e.g. crush injury), chemical, or biological factors. Breakdown products of damaged muscle cells are released into the bloodstream; some of these, such as the protein myoglobin, are harmful to the kidney and may lead to kidney dysfunction. The severity of the symptoms (which may include muscle pains, vomiting and confusion) depends on the extent of the muscle damage, and whether kidney failure develops. The mainstay of treatment is generous intravenous fluids, but could include dialysis or hemofiltration.
Rhabdomyolysis and its complications are significant problems for those injured in disasters such as earthquakes and bombing. Relief efforts in areas struck by earthquakes often include medical teams with skills and equipment for treatment of survivors with rhabdomyolysis. The disease and its mechanisms were first fully elucidated during the Blitz of London in 1941.
15,090 Views · 4 years ago
H&E stain is a popular staining method in histology. Its a combination of two dyes: the basic dye (hematoxylin) and the alcohol-based dye (eosin). In an H&E stain you will usually see both eosinophilia and basophilia: the nuclei of cells basophilic (blue), while eosinophilia is typical of cytoplasmic constituents (pink). Xylene, alcohols, distilled water are also required.
11,820 Views · 4 years ago
Paget's disease of the breast (also known as Paget's disease of the nipple ) is a malignant condition that outwardly may have the appearance of eczema, with skin changes involving the nipple of the breast.
The condition occurs when Paget's cells, which are large and irregular, form in the skin of the nipple. Although Paget believed the cells were not cancerous, it was later proved that the cells were themselves malignant, in addition to indicating underlying breast cancer. Since the condition is often innocuous and limited to a surface appearance, it is sometimes dismissed, despite the fact that it is indicative of a condition (breast cancer) that may prove fatal if left untreated.
21,039 Views · 4 years ago
Central Venous Catheter Placement & Pulmonary Artery Catheter Video
10,348 Views · 4 years ago
The Combitube is a twin lumen device designed for use in emergency situations and difficult airways. It can be inserted without the need for visualization into the oropharynx, and usually enters the esophagus. It has a low volume inflatable distal cuff and a much larger proximal cuff designed to occlude the oro- and nasopharynx.
If the tube has entered the trachea, ventilation is achieved through the distal lumen as with a standard ETT. More commonly the device enters the esophagus and ventilation is achieved through multiple proximal apertures situated above the distal cuff. In the latter case the proximal and distal cuffs have to be inflated to prevent air from escaping through the esophagus or back out of the oro- and nasopharynx.
19,561 Views · 4 years ago
Previously existing methods are characterized by unpleasant scars that, despite surgeons promises, remain for life.
- around the areola (Round block) leading to a flat areola, often unpleasant hypertophic skars, skin rippling.
- inverted T (around the areola, vertically down and in the fold under the breast).
- Vertical (around the areola and vertically down). Due to the extess skin, incisions often turn into inverted L or T. Rearrangement of glandular tissue and skin changes the shape of the breasts and may be different from expectations. Scars worry patients and sometimes cause disturbances in the relationship with their partner.
- No scars. The "Serdev Suture" lifting technique for breast lifting without scars (only points - needle perforations in the skin) is created by the Bulgarian cosmetic surgeon Prof. Dr. Nikolay Serdev. It is a novelty that had changed the cosmetic surgery world in the last 10-14 years for young patients. The technique is especially important in Asia and Latin America, for Asians, African-Americans, Indians, and others who form keloids and lumpy scars after operations.
The Serdev suture method can achieve lift upto and over 14 centimeters and is most suitable for the following types of breasts:
- not very heavy full breasts.
- in the presence of subpectoral implants with subsequent drooping of the breasts after childbirth and lactation.
- empty and loose breasts after childbirth and breastfeeding. In such cases this technique is combined with subpectoral implants. In sagging breasts implants should not be placed in the skin over the pectoral muscles, because thus will lead to even more drooping. Therefore, breast lift requires breast fixation to the level of the pectoral muscle (the normal position in young women), and then placement of appropriate implants under the muscle, to hold them in the appropriated position.
- in drooping breasts after subglandular augmentation (over the muscle). In such cases, patients should not wait until the skin elongation becomes visible. The implants should be removed, the capsule removed - a difficult but a necessary operation, preventing postop seromas and infection. Implants should be placed under the pectoralis muscle to wear them. Patients should orient the cosmetic surgeon at what level they want the nipples - in the middle of the implant, higher or lower.
Implants should be generally replaced - below the muscle implants should be smooth, move naturally without hurting the muscle.
Because of modern anesthetics and new methods without trauma, pain and swelling after surgery are not significant. In 3-4 days, patients can return to social life, even the next day, but it is preferable to rest for 2-3 days.
Exercises with the arms and weight lifting is prohibited for a month and a half.
Due to lack of scars, the breast lift using the Serdev sutures can be repeated to maintain the aesthetic appearence of the breasts even in advanced age.
Gigantomastia i.e. very large, very heavy and drooping breasts can not be operated in this manner, because of gravity and overskin.
Early mastopexy using Serdev sutures is recommended before too much changes in the tissues. If late, more and more complex interventions are required.
"A lot of people are opting for various breast procedures and one of the most common among them is “mastopexy”. This is the surgery that involved uplifting of sagging breasts and, in certain cases, repositioning of the nipple and areola in order to restore normality and beauty. The excess skin is removed and firmness is provided to the breasts. Though mastopexy can be done as a stand alone surgery, many people combine it with breast augmentation which involves inserting implants inside the b