Endocrinology

samer kareem
1,222 Views · 4 years ago

samer kareem
2,259 Views · 4 years ago

samer kareem
2,007 Views · 4 years ago

samer kareem
1,298 Views · 4 years ago

A detailed description of the Hepato-pulmonary syndrome including its definition, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment. The pathophysiology includes nitric oxide in the pulmonary vasculature which results in intrapulmonary vasodilatation. This causes the classical and unique symptom of platypnea and orthodeoxia.

samer kareem
1,341 Views · 4 years ago

A detailed description of Adrenal insufficiency (Addison's disease) including basic physiology of the HPA axis, causes of primary and secondary insufficiency, clinical features of acute and chronic adrenal insufficiency. Lab testing for Addison's disease is also dealt with in detail. The management, both short term and long term are discussed in detail.

samer kareem
895 Views · 4 years ago

Hypoglycemia is a common and serious medical emergency which may occur in both daibetic and non-diabetic patients. The signs and symptoms of hypoglycaemia may be present in many individuals, but may also be masked in several individuals due to a condition called hypoglycaemia induced autonomic failure. This presentation aims to deal with the causes, clinical features, diagnosis and management of various causes of hypoglycaemia. The causes of hypoglycaemia may be divided into hypoglycaemia in ill or medicated individuals and hypoglycaemia in previously asymptomatic individuals. A variety of causes are discussed under both headings. Management of hypoglycaemia is also discussed in detail. There is also a brief discussion about management of insulinoma.

samer kareem
3,732 Views · 4 years ago

Diabetic ketoacidosis is an acute complication of uncontrolled hyperglycaemia characterised by high anion gap metabolic acidosis, dehydration and other metabolic abnormalities. Upto half of patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus may have DKA. The incidence in T2DM is also rising. Precipitants include acute illness such as myocardial infarction, trauma and infection. Paitents of diabetic ketoacidosis may present with vomiting, pain abdomen and lethargy. Mental obtundation may also be present. Management of diabetic ketoacidosis revolves around administration of IV normal saline, insulin, replacement of potassium with frequent monitoring of sugars and electrolytes.

samer kareem
4,265 Views · 4 years ago

Acromegaly is usually caused by a noncancerous tumor. Middle-aged adults are most commonly affected. Symptoms include enlargement of the face, hands, and feet. Prompt treatment is needed to avoid serious illness. Drugs can reduce the effects of growth hormone. If needed, surgery and radiation may be used to remove tumor cells.

samer kareem
2,346 Views · 4 years ago

In this condition, the body retains water instead of excreting it normally in urine. This process upsets the body's balance of minerals called electrolytes, especially sodium. Symptoms can vary depending on how rapidly the condition develops. In some cases, nausea and vomiting, headache, confusion, weakness, and fatigue may be experienced. Treatments include fluid restriction and, possibly, medications to adjust electrolyte balance. Underlying conditions also need treatment.

samer kareem
4,663 Views · 4 years ago

ADH's job is to act on the kidneys to promote water reabsorption. In this lesson, we'll compare and contrast diabetes insipidus, or DI, in which there is too little ADH, and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion , or SIADH, in which there is too much ADH.

samer kareem
2,004 Views · 4 years ago

ADH's job is to act on the kidneys to promote water reabsorption. In this lesson, we'll compare and contrast diabetes insipidus, or DI, in which there is too little ADH, and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion , or SIADH, in which there is too much ADH.

samer kareem
2,045 Views · 4 years ago

Experts once believed that atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries, developed when too much cholesterol clogged arteries with fatty deposits called plaques. ... Researchers have discovered how diabetes, by driving inflammation and slowing blood flow, dramatically accelerates atherosclerosis.Mar 17, 2008 Past studies had shown diabetes to worsen atherosclerosis, but its exact link to related inflammation had remained unclear. The current results provides the first mechanistic description of how diabetes takes away the ability of fast blood flow force to protect blood vessels, arguing that it does so by interfering with ERK5 and its signaling partners.




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